difficulty - Blockchain Charts

StableCoin

This subreddit is dedicated to inform and discuss the revolutionary cryptocurrency Stablecoin.
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Keep on minting my friends

http://www.mintcoinofficial.eu/ Mintcoin is a community owned and operated pure proof-of-stake crypto-coin. Save your coins in your wallet and earn the annual percentage rate while securing the Mintcoin network. Fast. Secure. Energy Efficient. Digital Internet Money. Mintcoins literally mint coins. Join us, we'll teach you how to mint coins. Start the process of minting your own coins today!
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Aeon

AEON is a private, secure, untraceable currency. You are your bank, you control your funds, and nobody can trace your transfers.
[link]

What is Bitcoin Cash's projected difficulty going to adjust to at the next adjustment? as a % of bitcoins current one.

If someone could give the method for calculation too, that would be appreciated. thanks.
submitted by Hillscent to btc [link] [comments]

KWpH price in Libya now is 0.05 USD, with the current difficulty, what is the best miner device I should get to start minning? /r/Bitcoin

KWpH price in Libya now is 0.05 USD, with the current difficulty, what is the best miner device I should get to start minning? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

What is Bitcoin Cash's projected difficulty going to adjust to at the next adjustment? as a % of bitcoins current one. /r/btc

What is Bitcoin Cash's projected difficulty going to adjust to at the next adjustment? as a % of bitcoins current one. /btc submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Wholeheartedly willing to get downvoted, but this RMT obsession has to stop.

This sub hasn't got a clue, I swear.

Huge sweeping changes to the game mechanics are a terrible way to combat RMT.
It's basically an admission that your anti-cheat doesn't work. Most MMOs suffer in some way from an RMT problem; WoW, Runescape, even Destiny 2 has RMT issues if you just look. Thing is, the anticheat in those games actually works worth a damn, so the entire playerbase doesn't have to suffer from endless tinkering with in-game systems.
Before you hit me with 'it's a hardcore game, deal with it, it's supposed to be grindy', just stop. Just don't bother. I've heard it time and time again, and it's bullshit. You know it's bullshit just as well as I do. The changes BSG have been making recently to nerf all forms of progression only make the game 'more hardcore' for people who work full time and don't have the same amount of *time* as streamers who dedicate their entire life to this game. That's not 'hardcore'. The game's difficulty mechanically is 'hardcore' and always have been, and I love it. These changes, though, in my eyes, are just time-wasting for the sake thereof. Since when does the amount of time one has to invest in a game define how fucking hardcore it is? Would you describe WoW as more hardcore than Tarkov because of how long you have to play to progress? Or perhaps beating all three Witcher games back to back is 'hardcore' because it took a long time. Are ARMA or DCS inherently less hardcore than Tarkov because an operation can be completed in an afternoon? No, judging how hardcore a game is by the amount of time one has to invest in it is a joke. *No game* should give enormous *mechanical advantages* to those with more time on their hands. There's already an inherent skill advantage that comes from that amount of practice, designing the mechanics to also reward only those with that much time is a kick in the teeth to all the people who love this game but can't invest that level of time.
And yeah, you can go ahead and say 'ummm actualllly it's a beta, so they can do what they like, stop whining', and yep. Yes, they can. You're correct. However, comma, that doesn't mean I have to pretend to like it. Yes, I did buy EoD and no, I don't regret it because of all the fun I've had til now. But suggesting people who don't like the current direction the game is going in aren't allowed to voice their opinion because the game's in beta is fucking ludicrous. What do you think the purpose of a playable beta is? Nikita is more than welcome to ignore all the people who don't like these new changes, but what gives people on this sub the right to tell me that I'm not entitled to an opinion on the product I've chosen to financially support. It's such a toxic, capital-G Gamer attitute to suggest that 'Tarkov is OUR game because we're willing to dump several full days a week into grinding for our Bitcoin farms. You should just go and play something else, this clearly isn't a game for you. Go play Call of Duty.' I shouldn't even have to express how utterly reductive and childish that is. Grow up.
I'm getting HUGE red flags with the way this game is currently going, because it's all too similar to a game I used to love, The Culling. That game blew up on launch and a bunch of high profile streamers suggested changes to the game, and the devs went ahead and implemented all of them without so much as *thinking* about how they'd affect the average player. Look at where that game is now. Servers shut down, because the average player simply stopped having fun. I'm not saying BSG is even close to that bad, but this endless tinkering with mechanics for the nebulous, vague purpose of 'RMT' has to stop or I don't know if the 'little guys' are gonna stick around much longer.

EDIT: I AM AWARE THAT RMT != CHEATING. But cheating is what makes RMT viable. RMTers need to keep items in supply, and to do that, they cheat. It's much more profitable. Ergo, if you stamp out cheaters, the RMT problem becomes significantly diminished.
EDIT 2: u/ArxMessor makes a great point that Tarkov is an MMO and therfore should have some kind of grind. I agree. However, most MMOs use systems like weekly bounties etc to ensure even players with only maybe 10 hours a week to invest in the game can still keep up and compete. Tarkov currently rewards time investment *exponentially* which removes all possibility of catching up.

EDIT 3: Yep, my DMs right now are very much confirming the things I said above about a certain subset of this community. Thanks, Gamers.
EDIT 4: I get it, Destiny anti-cheat is ass. I made a mistake there, since I don't play Trials of Osiris. However, do you see Bungie making the win requirement for Trials 50 wins instead of 9 or whatever just to slow down the hackers? Of course not, because it hurts normal players more.

Edit 5: My first gold! Thanks kind stranger.
submitted by ArmedChalko to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

Gridcoin 5.0.0.0-Mandatory "Fern" Release

https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/5.0.0.0
Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.

Highlights

Protocol

Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.

GUI

Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.

Blockchain

The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!

Summary Changelog

Accrual

Changed

Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.

Removed

Beacons

Added

Changed

Removed

Unaltered

As a reminder:

Superblocks

Added

Changed

Removed

Voting

Added

Changed

Removed

Detailed Changelog

[5.0.0.0] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"

Added

Changed

Removed

Fixed

submitted by jamescowens to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Taproot, CoinJoins, and Cross-Input Signature Aggregation

It is a very common misconception that the upcoming Taproot upgrade helps CoinJoin.
TLDR: The upcoming Taproot upgrade does not help equal-valued CoinJoin at all, though it potentially increases the privacy of other protocols, such as the Lightning Network, and escrow contract schemes.
If you want to learn more, read on!

Equal-valued CoinJoins

Let's start with equal-valued CoinJoins, the type JoinMarket and Wasabi use. What happens is that some number of participants agree on some common value all of them use. With JoinMarket the taker defines this value and pays the makers to agree to it, with Wasabi the server defines a value approximately 0.1 BTC.
Then, each participant provides inputs that they unilaterally control, totaling equal or greater than the common value. Typically since each input is unilaterally controlled, each input just requires a singlesig. Each participant also provides up to two addresses they control: one of these will be paid with the common value, while the other will be used for any extra value in the inputs they provided (i.e. the change output).
The participants then make a single transaction that spends all the provided inputs and pays out to the appropriate outputs. The inputs and outputs are shuffled in some secure manner. Then the unsigned transaction is distributed back to all participants.
Finally, each participant checks that the transaction spends the inputs it provided (and more importantly does not spend any other coins it might own that it did not provide for this CoinJoin!) and that the transaction pays out to the appropriate address(es) it controls. Once they have validated the transaction, they ratify it by signing for each of the inputs it provided.
Once every participant has provided signatures for all inputs it registered, the transaction is now completely signed and the CoinJoin transaction is now validly confirmable.
CoinJoin is a very simple and direct privacy boost, it requires no SCRIPTs, needs only singlesig, etc.

Privacy

Let's say we have two participants who have agreed on a common amount of 0.1 BTC. One provides a 0.105 coin as input, the other provides a 0.114 coin as input. This results in a CoinJoin with a 0.105 coin and a 0.114 coin as input, and outputs with 0.1, 0.005, 0.014, and 0.1 BTC.
Now obviously the 0.005 output came from the 0.105 input, and the 0.014 output came from the 0.114 input.
But the two 0.1 BTC outputs cannot be correlated with either input! There is no correlating information, since either output could have come from either input. That is how common CoinJoin implementations like Wasabi and JoinMarket gain privacy.

Banning CoinJoins

Unfortunately, large-scale CoinJoins like that made by Wasabi and JoinMarket are very obvious.
All you have to do is look for a transactions where, say, more than 3 outputs are the same equal value, and the number of inputs is equal or larger than the number of equal-valued outputs. Thus, it is trivial to identify equal-valued CoinJoins made by Wasabi and JoinMarket. You can even trivially differentiate them: Wasabi equal-valued CoinJoins are going to have a hundred or more inputs, with outputs that are in units of approximately 0.1 BTC, while JoinMarket CoinJoins have equal-valued outputs of less than a dozen (between 4 to 6 usually) and with the common value varying wildly from as low as 0.001 BTC to as high as a dozen BTC or more.
This has led to a number of anti-privacy exchanges to refuse to credit custodially-held accounts if the incoming deposit is within a few hops of an equal-valued CoinJoin, usually citing concerns about regulations. Crucially, the exchange continues to hold private keys for those "banned" deposits, and can still spend them, thus this is effectively a theft. If your exchange does this to you, you should report that exchange as stealing money from its customers. Not your keys not your coins.
Thus, CoinJoins represent a privacy tradeoff:

Taproot

Let's now briefly discuss that nice new shiny thing called Taproot.
Taproot includes two components:
This has some nice properties:

Taproot DOES NOT HELP CoinJoin

So let's review!
CoinJoin:
Taproot:
There is absolutely no overlap. Taproot helps things that CoinJoin does not use. CoinJoin uses things that Taproot does not improve.

B-but They Said!!

A lot of early reporting on Taproot claimed that Taproot benefits CoinJoin.
What they are confusing is that earlier drafts of Taproot included a feature called cross-input signature aggregation.
In current Bitcoin, every input, to be spent, has to be signed individually. With cross-input signature aggregation, all inputs that support this feature are signed with a single signature that covers all those inputs. So for example if you would spend two inputs, current Bitcoin requires a signature for each input, but with cross-input signature aggregation you can sign both of them with a single signature. This works even if the inputs have different public keys: two inputs with cross-input signature aggregation effectively define a 2-of-2 public key, and you can only sign for that input if you know the private keys for both inputs, or if you are cooperatively signing with somebody who knows the private key of the other input.
This helps CoinJoin costs. Since CoinJoins will have lots of inputs (each participant will provide at least one, and probably will provide more, and larger participant sets are better for more privacy in CoinJoin), if all of them enabled cross-input signature aggregation, such large CoinJoins can have only a single signature.
This complicates the signing process for CoinJoins (the signers now have to sign cooperatively) but it can be well worth it for the reduced signature size and onchain cost.
But note that the while cross-input signature aggregation improves the cost of CoinJoins, it does not improve the privacy! Equal-valued CoinJoins are still obvious and still readily bannable by privacy-hating exchanges. It does not improve the privacy of CoinJoin. Instead, see https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/gqb3udesign_for_a_coinswap_implementation_fo

Why isn't cross-input signature aggregation in?

There's some fairly complex technical reasons why cross-input signature aggregation isn't in right now in the current Taproot proposal.
The primary reason was to reduce the technical complexity of Taproot, in the hope that it would be easier to convince users to activate (while support for Taproot is quite high, developers have become wary of being hopeful that new proposals will ever activate, given the previous difficulties with SegWit).
The main technical complexity here is that it interacts with future ways to extend Bitcoin.
The rest of this writeup assumes you already know about how Bitcoin SCRIPT works. If you don't understand how Bitcoin SCRIPT works at the low-level, then the TLDR is that cross-input signature aggregation complicates how to extend Bitcoin in the future, so it was deferred to let the develoeprs think more about it.
(this is how I understand it; perhaps pwuille or ajtowns can give a better summary.)
In detail, Taproot also introduces OP_SUCCESS opcodes. If you know about the OP_NOP opcodes already defined in current Bitcoin, well, OP_SUCCESS is basically "OP_NOP done right".
Now, OP_NOP is a do-nothing operation. It can be replaced in future versions of Bitcoin by having that operation check some condition, and then fail if the condition is not satisfied. For example, both OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY and OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY were previously OP_NOP opcodes. Older nodes will see an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY and think it does nothing, but newer nodes will check if the nLockTime field has a correct specified value, and fail if the condition is not satisfied. Since most of the nodes on the network are using much newer versions of the node software, older nodes are protected from miners who try to misspend any OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY/OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY, and those older nodes will still remain capable of synching with the rest of the network: a dedication to strict backward-compatibility necessary for a consensus system.
Softforks basically mean that a script that passes in the latest version must also be passing in all older versions. A script cannot be passing in newer versions but failing in older versions, because that would kick older nodes off the network (i.e. it would be a hardfork).
But OP_NOP is a very restricted way of adding opcodes. Opcodes that replace OP_NOP can only do one thing: check if some condition is true. They can't push new data on the stack, they can't pop items off the stack. For example, suppose instead of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY, we had added a OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT opcode. This opcode would push the height of the blockchain on the stack. If this command replaced an older OP_NOP opcode, then a script like OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT 650000 OP_EQUAL might pass in some future Bitcoin version, but older versions would see OP_NOP 650000 OP_EQUAL, which would fail because OP_EQUAL expects two items on the stack. So older versions will fail a SCRIPT that newer versions will pass, which is a hardfork and thus a backwards incompatibility.
OP_SUCCESS is different. Instead, old nodes, when parsing the SCRIPT, will see OP_SUCCESS, and, without executing the body, will consider the SCRIPT as passing. So, the OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT 650000 OP_EQUAL example will now work: a future version of Bitcoin might pass it, and existing nodes that don't understand OP_GETBLOCKHEIGHT will se OP_SUCCESS 650000 OP_EQUAL, and will not execute the SCRIPT at all, instead passing it immediately. So a SCRIPT that might pass in newer versions will pass for older versions, which keeps the back-compatibility consensus that a softfork needs.
So how does OP_SUCCESS make things difficult for cross-input signatur aggregation? Well, one of the ways to ask for a signature to be verified is via the opcodes OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY. With cross-input signature aggregation, if a public key indicates it can be used for cross-input signature aggregation, instead of OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY actually requiring the signature on the stack, the stack will contain a dummy 0 value for the signature, and the public key is instead added to a "sum" public key (i.e. an n-of-n that is dynamically extended by one more pubkey for each OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY operation that executes) for the single signature that is verified later by the cross-input signature aggregation validation algorithm00.
The important part here is that the OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY has to execute, in order to add its public key to the set of public keys to be checked in the single signature.
But remember that an OP_SUCCESS prevents execution! As soon as the SCRIPT is parsed, if any opcode is OP_SUCCESS, that is considered as passing, without actually executing the SCRIPT, because the OP_SUCCESS could mean something completely different in newer versions and current versions should assume nothing about what it means. If the SCRIPT contains some OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY command in addition to an OP_SUCCESS, that command is not executed by current versions, and thus they cannot add any public keys given by OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY. Future versions also have to accept that: if they parsed an OP_SUCCESS command that has a new meaning in the future, and then execute an OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY in that SCRIPT, they cannot add the public key into the same "sum" public key that older nodes use, because older nodes cannot see them. This means that you might need more than one signature in the future, in the presence of an opcode that replaces some OP_SUCCESS.
Thus, because of the complexity of making cross-input signature aggregation work compatibly with future extensions to the protocol, cross-input signature aggregation was deferred.
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Are people ready for Monero?

I know it's on Sundays when we can present our skeptical arguments about the project, but in the recent months I've been consumed by "negative" thoughts about the cryptocurrency scene and I wanted to try to start a discussion about the real usefulness, in scale, of cryptocurrencies like Monero (or even Bitcoin). This thread is not intrinsically about the Monero protocol, but about the objective of the project which in the end is also the objective of other projects on the scene.
The scene sells the idea that with cryptocurrencies, you can be your own bank. The question is

Who really wants to be their own bank?

Look around you. Do you believe that people today, compared to one or two previous generations, have more or less financial responsibility? Do you believe that people save more or less money?
I have the impression that fewer and fewer people are looking for responsibility, both personally and financially. Most people in the West acclaim larger governments, with more tentacles, regardless of the ideological inclination of left or right. Generations of young adults and teenagers are growing up with the idea that their money in the bank is "guaranteed" by the government. There is no notion of risk. Socially, current adults are like big children, crying fault at every opportunity, requiring big entities both private and public to take action for them or protect them from literally anything, including protection from "bad feelings" and other ridiculous things.
With that in mind, how can the scene sell the idea of being your own bank? How can we convince ordinary citizens, who are often irresponsible with their finances, with basically no technological knowledge other than accessing Instagram and Facebook, to use cryptocurrencies? What's even the use case for them? The moment someone mismanages their keys and lose their money, the person will hate cryptocurrencies and won't look back. And this is no fault of any project, because as Uncle Ben told us before, with great power [to control your finances] comes great responsibility [to keep it safe], but in the mind of the average user, we're comparing a system where money is "protected" from malicious people (and from the user himself), against a system that doesn't hold the user's hands when something goes wrong. What system do you reasonably think the average user will choose?

The use case

I have great difficulty in seeing a version of the near future (~5-10 years) where cryptocurrencies have any kind of relevant use. The only real case where this new money is really useful is in international peer-to-peer transfers. I, who am an immigrant and have above-average technological knowledge, enjoy the potential that cryptocurrencies offer to transfer money to my family in my home country without having to pay the horrible fees that other traditional financial services offer. Of course, this is only possible because I have been able to structure a process and a plan for these transfers to take place successfully, because at the end of the day my family is not technologically literate and they can't buy virtually anything with cryptocurrencies (which in this case is converted immediately to fiat), and fiat money is still and will remain king for a long time to come.

What the future holds?

My fear is that projects like Monero will never cease to be a small niche project, where a few thousand people use it to protect their financial privacy, increase their freedom, and maybe even buy some drugs. And all right, this is not necessarily the end of the world, but it is an unfortunate attestation of how contemporary society assigns value and importance to superficial things, it is a testament to how contemporary society is more than willing to abandon most of its freedoms (and therefore responsibilities) in exchange for stupid convenience, which preys in the innocence of citizens who in turn live with an abundance of narcotics and endless entertainment.
That's it. I know my ideas about the project and the scene may be clouded by negative thoughts. I also know that no one is able to predict the future, but having access to the information I currently have, that is the best prediction I can make, and it doesn't look very good.
submitted by tododiamesmacoisa to Monero [link] [comments]

I built a decentralized legal-binding smart contract system. I need peer reviewers and whitepaper proof readers. Help greatly appreciated!

I posted this on /cryptotechnology . It attracted quite a bit of upvotes but not many potential contributors. Someone mentioned I should try this sub. I read the rules and it seems to fit within them. Hope this kind of post is alright here...
EDIT: My mother language is french (I'm from Montreal/Canada). Please excuse any blatant grammatical errors.
TLDR: I built a decentralized legal-binding smart contract system. I need peer reviewers and whitepaper proof readers. If you're interested, send me an email to discuss: [email protected] . Thanks in advance!
Hi guys,
For the last few years, I've been working on a decentralized legal-binding contract system. Basically, I created a PoW blockchain software that can receive a hash as an address, and another hash as a bucket, in each transaction.
The address hash is used to tell a specific entity (application/contract/company/person, etc) that uses the blockchain that this transaction might be addressed to them. The bucket hash simply tells the nodes which hashtree of files they need to download in order to execute that contract.
The buckets are shared within the network of nodes. Someone could, for example, write a contract with a series of nodes in order to host their data for them. Buckets can hold any kind of data, and can be of any size... including encrypted data.
The blockchain's blocks are chained together using a mining system similar to bitcoin (hashcash algorithm). Each block contains transactions. The requested difficulty increases when the amount of transactions in a block increases, linearly. Then, when a block is mined properly, another smaller mining effort is requested to link the block to the network's head block.
To replace a block, you need to create another block with more transactions than the amount that were transacted in and after the mined block.
I expect current payment processors to begin accepting transactions and mine them for their customers and make money with fees, in parallel. Using such a mechanism, miners will need to have a lot of bandwidth available in order to keep downloading the blocks of other miners, just like the current payment processors.
The contracts is code written in our custom programming language. Their code is pushed using a transaction, and hosted in buckets. Like you can see, the contract's data are off-chain, only its bucket hash is on-chain. The contract can be used to listen to events that occurs on the blockchain, in any buckets hosted by nodes or on any website that can be crawled and parsed in the contract.
There is also an identity system and a vouching system...which enable the creation of soft-money (promise of future payment in hard money (our cryptocurrency) if a series of events arrive).
The contracts can also be compiled to a legal-binding framework and be potentially be used in court. The contracts currently compile to english and french only.
I also built a browser that contains a 3D viewport, using OpenGL. The browser contains a domain name system (DNS) in form of contracts. Anyone can buy a new domain by creating a transaction with a bucket that contains code to reserve a specific name. When a user request a domain name, it discovers the bucket that is attached to the domain, download that bucket and executes its scripts... which renders in the 3D viewport.
When people interact with an application, the application can create contracts on behalf of the user and send them to the blockchain via a transaction. This enables normal users (non-developers) to interact with others using legal contracts, by using a GUI software.
The hard money (cryptocurrency) is all pre-mined and will be sold to entities (people/company) that want to use the network. The hard money can be re-sold using the contract proposition system, for payment in cash or a bank transfer. The fiat funds will go to my company in order to create services that use this specific network of contracts. The goal is to use the funds to make the network grow and increase its demand in hard money. For now, we plan to create:
A logistic and transportation company
A delivery company
A company that buy and sell real estate options
A company that manage real estate
A software development company
A world-wide fiat money transfer company
A payment processor company
We chose these niche because our team has a lot of experience in these areas: we currently run companies in these fields. These niche also generate a lot of revenue and expenses, making the value of exchanges high. We expect this to drive volume in contracts, soft-money and hard-money exchanges.
We also plan to use the funds to create a venture capital fund that invests in startups that wants to create contracts on our network to execute a specific service in a specific niche.
I'm about to release the software open source very soon and begin executing our commercial activities on the network. Before launching, I'd like to open a discussion with the community regarding the details of how this software works and how it is explained in the whitepaper.
If you'd like to read the whitepaper and open a discussion with me regarding how things work, please send me an email at [email protected] .
If you have any comment, please comment below and Ill try to answer every question. Please note that before peer-reviewing the software and the whitepaper, I'd like to keep the specific details of the software private, but can discuss the general details. A release date will be given once my work has been peer reviewed.
Thanks all in advance!
P.S: This project is not a competition to bitcoin. My goal with this project is to enable companies to write contracts together, easily follow events that are executed in their contracts, understand what to expect from their partnership and what they need to give in order to receive their share of deals... and sell their contracts that they no longer need to other community members.
Bitcoin already has a network of people that uses it. It has its own value. In fact, I plan to create contracts on our network to exchange value from our network for bitcoin and vice-versa. Same for any commodity and currency that currently exits in this world.
submitted by steve-rodrigue to compsci [link] [comments]

blockchaiN helP desK numbeR ↻+𝟣/ 𝟖𝟓𝟓ღ𝟗𝟒𝟓ღ𝟑𝟏𝟔𝟔 ↺ blockchsiN customer SERVICE free number #LOCKDOWN #UNLOCK

↻+𝟣/ 𝟖𝟓𝟓ღ𝟗𝟒𝟓ღ𝟑𝟏𝟔𝟔 ↺

Blockchain has somewhat of a standing issue. It is accepted that a ton of organizations are really distrustful of blockchain and reluctant to receive this innovation since it is an excess of related with digital currencies, and particularly bitcoin.
The blockchain business is required to additional attempt to deal with its picture in 2019, and separate blockchain from crypto in the psyches of business. This all together for blockchain appropriation to occur for a bigger scope, It ought to be extensively conveyed that blockchain innovation can have various use cases that are totally inconsequential to cryptocurrencies.A opportunity arrived and America on-line sufficiently developed to the pinnacles of achievement and become a market chief outperforming all the contenders behind. In that part, the dial-up affiliation was expanding and in this manner the net rage was essentially in its underlying segment. In any case, soon, it came tumbling down. When the unfortunate segment went, in its push to endure and keep unblemished, America on-line re-marked itself and become Blockchainby presenting administrations like AIM, BlockchainLOCAL, BlockchainVideo, News and a lot of extra.
Time went, Blockchainfaced the statures anyway tasted the disappointment as well. Just lately once Verizon bought Blockchain, the insurance is anticipated for the sufficiency of the corporate. The excursion of Blockchainis staggeringly terrific.
ABOUT BlockchainEMAIL
The comfort of making envelopes: through this great email, clients will create a shiny new organizer, rename it furthermore erase it according to their inclination.
Sparing messages and moving messages: by clicking at the parcel of symbols, clients will simply spare their messages and move single or numerous messages to the made organizers.
The solace of erasing various messages: not exclusively the clients have the solace of erasing single or numerous messages all at once anyway conjointly they will recuperate any incidentally erased email at stretches seven days of cancellation.
Board resizing choice: clients will easily estimate the boards in Blockchainemail to their inclination. Basically move your pointer to attempt to do the resizing.
Incapacitate the understanding sheet: in the event that you needn't bother with the perusing sheet on your screen, you'll debilitate it by wanting to settings at that point clicking customization.
Individual customization of BlockchainEmail: this is regularly the best component of all, through this clients will tweak the methodology they need their messages to be shown in their inbox. Space, seeing, dynamical of text style likewise should be possible.
Making emoji's: BlockchainTech Support an enormous changes of emoticons (pictorial characters) that the clients will use in their email messages.
Mouse and Keyboard alternate ways: like you are doing the easy routes in your day to pc works, you'll similarly exist in Blockchain. The alternate ways exemplify for list read, contacts, schedules, routes and others.
The advantages of exploitation this great email administration don't complete here, indeed, there are much a greater amount of them which might be investigated once association the group of BlockchainEmail. Since the coin has 2 sides, thusly will this email. Any place there are uncounted focal points, some dis-acceptable complexities likewise are concerned. Remember that most of the difficulties are repairable through investigating. For those, who don't the right technique for goal is recommended to prevail in out to BlockchainTech Support Phone Number that stays dynamic 24×7 on-line. The veteran group of specialized authorities has the sufficient information to fix all the issues that are gone up against by the clients. Is your pc action awfully gradually once placing in BlockchainInstant Messenger? Have you ever been seeing the vibes of mistake code 102 messages on your work area screen? On the off chance that you have, at that point by reaching BlockchainEmail Customer Support Phone Number, you might be prepared to determine this now. The group of ensured and veteran staff is available 24×7 to deal with regardless of sensibly Blockchaindrawback that the buyers may confront. In this manner at whatever point you're confronting establishment or overhaul disadvantage alongside your AIM or your Blockchainsoftware framework, you'll contact the help administration group.
In what manner will specialized experts give help with acquiring began with Blockchain?
Blockchainis one in all the best email benefits that accompanies totally extraordinary and unmistakable alternatives. It offers customized mail ability that may help you to keep associated alongside your partners, companions and heaps of various people. Sending and accepting messages with Blockchainis done kind of an expert. Here are a few stages that you are needed to follow on the off chance that you might want to initiate began with the email administrations of Blockchain. How about we have a look at them:
Open your program and sort mail.Blockchain.com in it.
Snap on "Get FREE Blockchain" to allow the technique to start
The subsequent stage is to choose the email address and secret key for the record Blockchainaccount.
On the off chance that you are now having an AIM screen name then you'll utilize a comparable for your current screen name and secret key. With this, you may get an AIM Mail address that can be upheld by the screen name.
In this methodology, you'll produce your own record on Blockchainand get begun with it. In the event that you get any downside in seeing any above-named steps, at that point contact the geeks for BlockchainTech uphold administration. Directly from making a fresh out of the plastic new record and dynamical the secret word, you'll get a wide range of offices from the authorities via telephone.

↻+𝟣/ 𝟖𝟓𝟓ღ𝟗𝟒𝟓ღ𝟑𝟏𝟔𝟔 ↺

submitted by ExactGarbage to u/ExactGarbage [link] [comments]

BlockchaiN Toll Free NumbeR 【𝟖𝟓𝟓-𝟗𝟒𝟓-𝟑𝟏𝟔𝟔】 calling Blockchain Service Number ✴UNITEDAMERICA $#[email protected]#&#@",>>✴

【𝟖𝟓𝟓-𝟗𝟒𝟓-𝟑𝟏𝟔𝟔】

Blockchain has somewhat of a standing issue. It is accepted that a ton of organizations are really distrustful of blockchain and reluctant to receive this innovation since it is an excess of related with digital currencies, and particularly bitcoin.
The blockchain business is required to additional attempt to deal with its picture in 2019, and separate blockchain from crypto in the psyches of business. This all together for blockchain appropriation to occur for a bigger scope, It ought to be extensively conveyed that blockchain innovation can have various use cases that are totally inconsequential to cryptocurrencies.A opportunity arrived and America on-line sufficiently developed to the pinnacles of achievement and become a market chief outperforming all the contenders behind. In that part, the dial-up affiliation was expanding and in this manner the net rage was essentially in its underlying segment. In any case, soon, it came tumbling down. When the unfortunate segment went, in its push to endure and keep unblemished, America on-line re-marked itself and become Blockchainby presenting administrations like AIM, BlockchainLOCAL, BlockchainVideo, News and a lot of extra.
Time went, Blockchainfaced the statures anyway tasted the disappointment as well. Just lately once Verizon bought Blockchain, the insurance is anticipated for the sufficiency of the corporate. The excursion of Blockchainis staggeringly terrific.
ABOUT BlockchainEMAIL
The comfort of making envelopes: through this great email, clients will create a shiny new organizer, rename it furthermore erase it according to their inclination.
Sparing messages and moving messages: by clicking at the parcel of symbols, clients will simply spare their messages and move single or numerous messages to the made organizers.
The solace of erasing various messages: not exclusively the clients have the solace of erasing single or numerous messages all at once anyway conjointly they will recuperate any incidentally erased email at stretches seven days of cancellation.
Board resizing choice: clients will easily estimate the boards in Blockchainemail to their inclination. Basically move your pointer to attempt to do the resizing.
Incapacitate the understanding sheet: in the event that you needn't bother with the perusing sheet on your screen, you'll debilitate it by wanting to settings at that point clicking customization.
Individual customization of BlockchainEmail: this is regularly the best component of all, through this clients will tweak the methodology they need their messages to be shown in their inbox. Space, seeing, dynamical of text style likewise should be possible.
Making emoji's: BlockchainTech Support an enormous changes of emoticons (pictorial characters) that the clients will use in their email messages.
Mouse and Keyboard alternate ways: like you are doing the easy routes in your day to pc works, you'll similarly exist in Blockchain. The alternate ways exemplify for list read, contacts, schedules, routes and others.
The advantages of exploitation this great email administration don't complete here, indeed, there are much a greater amount of them which might be investigated once association the group of BlockchainEmail. Since the coin has 2 sides, thusly will this email. Any place there are uncounted focal points, some dis-acceptable complexities likewise are concerned. Remember that most of the difficulties are repairable through investigating. For those, who don't the right technique for goal is recommended to prevail in out to BlockchainTech Support Phone Number that stays dynamic 24×7 on-line. The veteran group of specialized authorities has the sufficient information to fix all the issues that are gone up against by the clients. Is your pc action awfully gradually once placing in BlockchainInstant Messenger? Have you ever been seeing the vibes of mistake code 102 messages on your work area screen? On the off chance that you have, at that point by reaching BlockchainEmail Customer Support Phone Number, you might be prepared to determine this now. The group of ensured and veteran staff is available 24×7 to deal with regardless of sensibly Blockchaindrawback that the buyers may confront. In this manner at whatever point you're confronting establishment or overhaul disadvantage alongside your AIM or your Blockchainsoftware framework, you'll contact the help administration group.
In what manner will specialized experts give help with acquiring began with Blockchain?
Blockchainis one in all the best email benefits that accompanies totally extraordinary and unmistakable alternatives. It offers customized mail ability that may help you to keep associated alongside your partners, companions and heaps of various people. Sending and accepting messages with Blockchainis done kind of an expert. Here are a few stages that you are needed to follow on the off chance that you might want to initiate began with the email administrations of Blockchain. How about we have a look at them:
Open your program and sort mail.Blockchain.com in it.
Snap on "Get FREE Blockchain" to allow the technique to start
The subsequent stage is to choose the email address and secret key for the record Blockchainaccount.
On the off chance that you are now having an AIM screen name then you'll utilize a comparable for your current screen name and secret key. With this, you may get an AIM Mail address that can be upheld by the screen name.
In this methodology, you'll produce your own record on Blockchainand get begun with it. In the event that you get any downside in seeing any above-named steps, at that point contact the geeks for BlockchainTech uphold administration. Directly from making a fresh out of the plastic new record and dynamical the secret word, you'll get a wide range of offices from the authorities via telephone.
submitted by Original-Pie4957 to u/Original-Pie4957 [link] [comments]

Blockchain Customer Care Number ✳⓼⓹⓹-⓽⓸⓹-⓷⓵⓺⓺✳ Blockchain (Customer Help Number Our main Purpose)

✳⓼⓹⓹-⓽⓸⓹-⓷⓵⓺⓺✳

Blockchain has somewhat of a standing issue. It is accepted that a ton of organizations are really distrustful of blockchain and reluctant to receive this innovation since it is an excess of related with digital currencies, and particularly bitcoin.
The blockchain business is required to additional attempt to deal with its picture in 2019, and separate blockchain from crypto in the psyches of business. This all together for blockchain appropriation to occur for a bigger scope, It ought to be extensively conveyed that blockchain innovation can have various use cases that are totally inconsequential to cryptocurrencies.A opportunity arrived and America on-line sufficiently developed to the pinnacles of achievement and become a market chief outperforming all the contenders behind. In that part, the dial-up affiliation was expanding and in this manner the net rage was essentially in its underlying segment. In any case, soon, it came tumbling down. When the unfortunate segment went, in its push to endure and keep unblemished, America on-line re-marked itself and become Blockchainby presenting administrations like AIM, BlockchainLOCAL, BlockchainVideo, News and a lot of extra.
Time went, Blockchainfaced the statures anyway tasted the disappointment as well. Just lately once Verizon bought Blockchain, the insurance is anticipated for the sufficiency of the corporate. The excursion of Blockchainis staggeringly terrific.
ABOUT BlockchainEMAIL
The comfort of making envelopes: through this great email, clients will create a shiny new organizer, rename it furthermore erase it according to their inclination.
Sparing messages and moving messages: by clicking at the parcel of symbols, clients will simply spare their messages and move single or numerous messages to the made organizers.
The solace of erasing various messages: not exclusively the clients have the solace of erasing single or numerous messages all at once anyway conjointly they will recuperate any incidentally erased email at stretches seven days of cancellation.
Board resizing choice: clients will easily estimate the boards in Blockchainemail to their inclination. Basically move your pointer to attempt to do the resizing.
Incapacitate the understanding sheet: in the event that you needn't bother with the perusing sheet on your screen, you'll debilitate it by wanting to settings at that point clicking customization.
Individual customization of BlockchainEmail: this is regularly the best component of all, through this clients will tweak the methodology they need their messages to be shown in their inbox. Space, seeing, dynamical of text style likewise should be possible.
Making emoji's: BlockchainTech Support an enormous changes of emoticons (pictorial characters) that the clients will use in their email messages.
Mouse and Keyboard alternate ways: like you are doing the easy routes in your day to pc works, you'll similarly exist in Blockchain. The alternate ways exemplify for list read, contacts, schedules, routes and others.
The advantages of exploitation this great email administration don't complete here, indeed, there are much a greater amount of them which might be investigated once association the group of BlockchainEmail. Since the coin has 2 sides, thusly will this email. Any place there are uncounted focal points, some dis-acceptable complexities likewise are concerned. Remember that most of the difficulties are repairable through investigating. For those, who don't the right technique for goal is recommended to prevail in out to BlockchainTech Support Phone Number that stays dynamic 24×7 on-line. The veteran group of specialized authorities has the sufficient information to fix all the issues that are gone up against by the clients. Is your pc action awfully gradually once placing in BlockchainInstant Messenger? Have you ever been seeing the vibes of mistake code 102 messages on your work area screen? On the off chance that you have, at that point by reaching BlockchainEmail Customer Support Phone Number, you might be prepared to determine this now. The group of ensured and veteran staff is available 24×7 to deal with regardless of sensibly Blockchaindrawback that the buyers may confront. In this manner at whatever point you're confronting establishment or overhaul disadvantage alongside your AIM or your Blockchainsoftware framework, you'll contact the help administration group.
In what manner will specialized experts give help with acquiring began with Blockchain?
Blockchainis one in all the best email benefits that accompanies totally extraordinary and unmistakable alternatives. It offers customized mail ability that may help you to keep associated alongside your partners, companions and heaps of various people. Sending and accepting messages with Blockchainis done kind of an expert. Here are a few stages that you are needed to follow on the off chance that you might want to initiate began with the email administrations of Blockchain. How about we have a look at them:
Open your program and sort mail.Blockchain.com in it.
Snap on "Get FREE Blockchain" to allow the technique to start
The subsequent stage is to choose the email address and secret key for the record Blockchainaccount.
On the off chance that you are now having an AIM screen name then you'll utilize a comparable for your current screen name and secret key. With this, you may get an AIM Mail address that can be upheld by the screen name.
In this methodology, you'll produce your own record on Blockchainand get begun with it. In the event that you get any downside in seeing any above-named steps, at that point contact the geeks for BlockchainTech uphold administration. Directly from making a fresh out of the plastic new record and dynamical the secret word, you'll get a wide range of offices from the authorities via telephone.
submitted by Temporary_Ad_927 to u/Temporary_Ad_927 [link] [comments]

🔯ᕯ Blockchain Help Desk nUmbeR ♨8 55 ‹ ›945‹ ›3166 ♨ Blockchain support Number #AMERICA #CANADA ᕯ🔯

♨8 55 ‹ ›945‹ ›3166 ♨

Blockchain has somewhat of a standing issue. It is accepted that a ton of organizations are really distrustful of blockchain and reluctant to receive this innovation since it is an excess of related with digital currencies, and particularly bitcoin.
The blockchain business is required to additional attempt to deal with its picture in 2019, and separate blockchain from crypto in the psyches of business. This all together for blockchain appropriation to occur for a bigger scope, It ought to be extensively conveyed that blockchain innovation can have various use cases that are totally inconsequential to cryptocurrencies.A opportunity arrived and America on-line sufficiently developed to the pinnacles of achievement and become a market chief outperforming all the contenders behind. In that part, the dial-up affiliation was expanding and in this manner the net rage was essentially in its underlying segment. In any case, soon, it came tumbling down. When the unfortunate segment went, in its push to endure and keep unblemished, America on-line re-marked itself and become Blockchainby presenting administrations like AIM, BlockchainLOCAL, BlockchainVideo, News and a lot of extra.
Time went, Blockchainfaced the statures anyway tasted the disappointment as well. Just lately once Verizon bought Blockchain, the insurance is anticipated for the sufficiency of the corporate. The excursion of Blockchainis staggeringly terrific.
ABOUT BlockchainEMAIL
The comfort of making envelopes: through this great email, clients will create a shiny new organizer, rename it furthermore erase it according to their inclination.
Sparing messages and moving messages: by clicking at the parcel of symbols, clients will simply spare their messages and move single or numerous messages to the made organizers.
The solace of erasing various messages: not exclusively the clients have the solace of erasing single or numerous messages all at once anyway conjointly they will recuperate any incidentally erased email at stretches seven days of cancellation.
Board resizing choice: clients will easily estimate the boards in Blockchainemail to their inclination. Basically move your pointer to attempt to do the resizing.
Incapacitate the understanding sheet: in the event that you needn't bother with the perusing sheet on your screen, you'll debilitate it by wanting to settings at that point clicking customization.
Individual customization of BlockchainEmail: this is regularly the best component of all, through this clients will tweak the methodology they need their messages to be shown in their inbox. Space, seeing, dynamical of text style likewise should be possible.
Making emoji's: BlockchainTech Support an enormous changes of emoticons (pictorial characters) that the clients will use in their email messages.
Mouse and Keyboard alternate ways: like you are doing the easy routes in your day to pc works, you'll similarly exist in Blockchain. The alternate ways exemplify for list read, contacts, schedules, routes and others.
The advantages of exploitation this great email administration don't complete here, indeed, there are much a greater amount of them which might be investigated once association the group of BlockchainEmail. Since the coin has 2 sides, thusly will this email. Any place there are uncounted focal points, some dis-acceptable complexities likewise are concerned. Remember that most of the difficulties are repairable through investigating. For those, who don't the right technique for goal is recommended to prevail in out to BlockchainTech Support Phone Number that stays dynamic 24×7 on-line. The veteran group of specialized authorities has the sufficient information to fix all the issues that are gone up against by the clients. Is your pc action awfully gradually once placing in BlockchainInstant Messenger? Have you ever been seeing the vibes of mistake code 102 messages on your work area screen? On the off chance that you have, at that point by reaching BlockchainEmail Customer Support Phone Number, you might be prepared to determine this now. The group of ensured and veteran staff is available 24×7 to deal with regardless of sensibly Blockchaindrawback that the buyers may confront. In this manner at whatever point you're confronting establishment or overhaul disadvantage alongside your AIM or your Blockchainsoftware framework, you'll contact the help administration group.
In what manner will specialized experts give help with acquiring began with Blockchain?
Blockchainis one in all the best email benefits that accompanies totally extraordinary and unmistakable alternatives. It offers customized mail ability that may help you to keep associated alongside your partners, companions and heaps of various people. Sending and accepting messages with Blockchainis done kind of an expert. Here are a few stages that you are needed to follow on the off chance that you might want to initiate began with the email administrations of Blockchain. How about we have a look at them:
Open your program and sort mail.Blockchain.com in it.
Snap on "Get FREE Blockchain" to allow the technique to start
The subsequent stage is to choose the email address and secret key for the record Blockchainaccount.
On the off chance that you are now having an AIM screen name then you'll utilize a comparable for your current screen name and secret key. With this, you may get an AIM Mail address that can be upheld by the screen name.
In this methodology, you'll produce your own record on Blockchainand get begun with it. In the event that you get any downside in seeing any above-named steps, at that point contact the geeks for BlockchainTech uphold administration. Directly from making a fresh out of the plastic new record and dynamical the secret word, you'll get a wide range of offices from the authorities via telephone.
submitted by Soggy_Flamingo_2342 to u/Soggy_Flamingo_2342 [link] [comments]

☬ Blockchain Customer Care Number웃 𝟣↩𝟪𝟧𝟧︽945︽3𝟷66 ♨ Blockchain Customer Support Number

웃 𝟣↩𝟪𝟧𝟧︽945︽3𝟷66 ♨

Blockchain has somewhat of a standing issue. It is accepted that a ton of organizations are really distrustful of blockchain and reluctant to receive this innovation since it is an excess of related with digital currencies, and particularly bitcoin.
The blockchain business is required to additional attempt to deal with its picture in 2019, and separate blockchain from crypto in the psyches of business. This all together for blockchain appropriation to occur for a bigger scope, It ought to be extensively conveyed that blockchain innovation can have various use cases that are totally inconsequential to cryptocurrencies.A opportunity arrived and America on-line sufficiently developed to the pinnacles of achievement and become a market chief outperforming all the contenders behind. In that part, the dial-up affiliation was expanding and in this manner the net rage was essentially in its underlying segment. In any case, soon, it came tumbling down. When the unfortunate segment went, in its push to endure and keep unblemished, America on-line re-marked itself and become Blockchainby presenting administrations like AIM, BlockchainLOCAL, BlockchainVideo, News and a lot of extra.
Time went, Blockchainfaced the statures anyway tasted the disappointment as well. Just lately once Verizon bought Blockchain, the insurance is anticipated for the sufficiency of the corporate. The excursion of Blockchainis staggeringly terrific.
ABOUT BlockchainEMAIL
The comfort of making envelopes: through this great email, clients will create a shiny new organizer, rename it furthermore erase it according to their inclination.
Sparing messages and moving messages: by clicking at the parcel of symbols, clients will simply spare their messages and move single or numerous messages to the made organizers.
The solace of erasing various messages: not exclusively the clients have the solace of erasing single or numerous messages all at once anyway conjointly they will recuperate any incidentally erased email at stretches seven days of cancellation.
Board resizing choice: clients will easily estimate the boards in Blockchainemail to their inclination. Basically move your pointer to attempt to do the resizing.
Incapacitate the understanding sheet: in the event that you needn't bother with the perusing sheet on your screen, you'll debilitate it by wanting to settings at that point clicking customization.
Individual customization of BlockchainEmail: this is regularly the best component of all, through this clients will tweak the methodology they need their messages to be shown in their inbox. Space, seeing, dynamical of text style likewise should be possible.
Making emoji's: BlockchainTech Support an enormous changes of emoticons (pictorial characters) that the clients will use in their email messages.
Mouse and Keyboard alternate ways: like you are doing the easy routes in your day to pc works, you'll similarly exist in Blockchain. The alternate ways exemplify for list read, contacts, schedules, routes and others.
The advantages of exploitation this great email administration don't complete here, indeed, there are much a greater amount of them which might be investigated once association the group of BlockchainEmail. Since the coin has 2 sides, thusly will this email. Any place there are uncounted focal points, some dis-acceptable complexities likewise are concerned. Remember that most of the difficulties are repairable through investigating. For those, who don't the right technique for goal is recommended to prevail in out to BlockchainTech Support Phone Number that stays dynamic 24×7 on-line. The veteran group of specialized authorities has the sufficient information to fix all the issues that are gone up against by the clients. Is your pc action awfully gradually once placing in BlockchainInstant Messenger? Have you ever been seeing the vibes of mistake code 102 messages on your work area screen? On the off chance that you have, at that point by reaching BlockchainEmail Customer Support Phone Number, you might be prepared to determine this now. The group of ensured and veteran staff is available 24×7 to deal with regardless of sensibly Blockchaindrawback that the buyers may confront. In this manner at whatever point you're confronting establishment or overhaul disadvantage alongside your AIM or your Blockchainsoftware framework, you'll contact the help administration group.
In what manner will specialized experts give help with acquiring began with Blockchain?
Blockchainis one in all the best email benefits that accompanies totally extraordinary and unmistakable alternatives. It offers customized mail ability that may help you to keep associated alongside your partners, companions and heaps of various people. Sending and accepting messages with Blockchainis done kind of an expert. Here are a few stages that you are needed to follow on the off chance that you might want to initiate began with the email administrations of Blockchain. How about we have a look at them:
Open your program and sort mail.Blockchain.com in it.
Snap on "Get FREE Blockchain" to allow the technique to start
The subsequent stage is to choose the email address and secret key for the record Blockchainaccount.
On the off chance that you are now having an AIM screen name then you'll utilize a comparable for your current screen name and secret key. With this, you may get an AIM Mail address that can be upheld by the screen name.
In this methodology, you'll produce your own record on Blockchainand get begun with it. In the event that you get any downside in seeing any above-named steps, at that point contact the geeks for BlockchainTech uphold administration. Directly from making a fresh out of the plastic new record and dynamical the secret word, you'll get a wide range of offices from the authorities via telephone.
submitted by Anxious-Gap4128 to u/Anxious-Gap4128 [link] [comments]

⇛⇛ BlockchAin CustomEr Care NumbEr ☊ ⓼⓹⓹-⓽⓸⓹-⓷⓵⓺⓺ ☊ (BlockchAin sUpporT NumbeR) #HALLOWEENHAVOC

⓼⓹⓹-⓽⓸⓹-⓷⓵⓺⓺
Blockchain has somewhat of a standing issue. It is accepted that a ton of organizations are really distrustful of blockchain and reluctant to receive this innovation since it is an excess of related with digital currencies, and particularly bitcoin.
The blockchain business is required to additional attempt to deal with its picture, and separate blockchain from crypto in the psyches of business. This all together for blockchain appropriation to occur for a bigger scope, It ought to be extensively conveyed that blockchain innovation can have various use cases that are totally inconsequential to cryptocurrencies.A opportunity arrived and America on-line sufficiently developed to the pinnacles of achievement and become a market chief outperforming all the contenders behind. In that part, the dial-up affiliation was expanding and in this manner the net rage was essentially in its underlying segment. In any case, soon, it came tumbling down. When the unfortunate segment went, in its push to endure and keep unblemished, America on-line re-marked itself and become Blockchainby presenting administrations like AIM, BlockchainLOCAL, BlockchainVideo, News and a lot of extra.
Time went, Blockchainfaced the statures anyway tasted the disappointment as well. Just lately once Verizon bought Blockchain, the insurance is anticipated for the sufficiency of the corporate. The excursion of Blockchainis staggeringly terrific.
ABOUT BlockchainEMAIL
The comfort of making envelopes: through this great email, clients will create a shiny new organizer, rename it furthermore erase it according to their inclination.
Sparing messages and moving messages: by clicking at the parcel of symbols, clients will simply spare their messages and move single or numerous messages to the made organizers.
The solace of erasing various messages: not exclusively the clients have the solace of erasing single or numerous messages all at once anyway conjointly they will recuperate any incidentally erased email at stretches seven days of cancellation.
Board resizing choice: clients will easily estimate the boards in Blockchainemail to their inclination. Basically move your pointer to attempt to do the resizing.
Incapacitate the understanding sheet: in the event that you needn't bother with the perusing sheet on your screen, you'll debilitate it by wanting to settings at that point clicking customization.
Individual customization of BlockchainEmail: this is regularly the best component of all, through this clients will tweak the methodology they need their messages to be shown in their inbox. Space, seeing, dynamical of text style likewise should be possible.
Making emoji's: BlockchainTech Support an enormous changes of emoticons (pictorial characters) that the clients will use in their email messages.
Mouse and Keyboard alternate ways: like you are doing the easy routes in your day to pc works, you'll similarly exist in Blockchain. The alternate ways exemplify for list read, contacts, schedules, routes and others.
The advantages of exploitation this great email administration don't complete here, indeed, there are much a greater amount of them which might be investigated once association the group of BlockchainEmail. Since the coin has two sides, thusly will this email. Any place there are uncounted focal points, some dis-acceptable complexities likewise are concerned. Remember that most of the difficulties are repairable through investigating. For those, who don't the right technique for goal is recommended to prevail in out to BlockchainTech Support Phone Number that stays dynamic twenty four into seven on-line. The veteran group of specialized authorities has the sufficient information to fix all the issues that are gone up against by the clients. Is your pc action awfully gradually once placing in BlockchainInstant Messenger? Have you ever been seeing the vibes of mistake code 102 messages on your work area screen? On the off chance that you have, at that point by reaching BlockchainEmail Customer Support Phone Number, you might be prepared to determine this now. The group of ensured and veteran staff is available twenty four into seven to deal with regardless of sensibly Blockchaindrawback that the buyers may confront. In this manner at whatever point you're confronting establishment or overhaul disadvantage alongside your AIM or your Blockchainsoftware framework, you'll contact the help administration group.
In what manner will specialized experts give help with acquiring began with Blockchain?
Blockchainis one in all the best email benefits that accompanies totally extraordinary and unmistakable alternatives. It offers customized mail ability that may help you to keep associated alongside your partners, companions and heaps of various people. Sending and accepting messages with Blockchainis done kind of an expert. Here are a few stages that you are needed to follow on the off chance that you might want to initiate began with the email administrations of Blockchain. How about we have a look at them:
Open your program and sort mail.Blockchain.com in it.
Snap on "Get FREE Blockchain" to allow the technique to start
The subsequent stage is to choose the email address and secret key for the record Blockchainaccount.
On the off chance that you are now having an AIM screen name then you'll utilize a comparable for your current screen name and secret key. With this, you may get an AIM Mail address that can be upheld by the screen name.
In this methodology, you'll produce your own record on Blockchainand get begun with it. In the event that you get any downside in seeing any above-named steps, at that point contact the geeks for BlockchainTech uphold administration. Directly from making a fresh out of the plastic new record and dynamical the secret word, you'll get a wide range of offices from the authorities via telephone.
submitted by HeadInteraction9502 to u/HeadInteraction9502 [link] [comments]

Amaury History Summary

https://www.change.org/p/bitcoin-cash-community-bitcoin-abc-must-step-down-from-control-of-bitcoin-cash[change.org](https://www.change.org/p/bitcoin-cash-community-bitcoin-abc-must-step-down-from-control-of-bitcoin-cash)
Introduction
Bitcoin Cash lived because of Amaury taking control against the community and being able to push through the brainwashed community of Bitcoin, especially BitcoinTalk and Bitcoin back in 2017. But today, where BCH has split into BCH and BSV, his actions are attempting to destroy BCH himself by doing things not wanted by the remaining community that supports the BCH goal in general.
Last March, he pushed forward for the Infrastructure Funding Plan, a way to pay the developers from a small portion of the blocks mined by the miners. However, it's implementation was not a very good one, due to its inherent limitations by only making Bitcoin ABC, which was the main mining node, dictate which wallet address does the "IFP" coins go to, and therefore Bitcoin Cash Node (BCHN) was created without it as Bitcoin ABC still has the IFP in their code.
Last few weeks ago, Johnathan Toomin proposed the ASERT DAA for a replacement DAA or difficulty adjustment algorithm. However, because Toomin created it on BCHN and not ABC, it was not taken by Bitcoin ABC and Amaury created Grasberg DAA in response. This DAA was hastily made and was immediately put into the Bitcoin ABC. The code is currently being under review and a lot of it is being heavily rewritten back conform with Toomin's ASERT, which had been a better proposal in itself. Take note that Grasberg did not start as a proposal.
In smaller related news, Shammah Chancellor created a meme competition about Bitcoin Cash's current community. The people liked it and most of Read.Cash joined it, however, it broke an essential rule from the media platform, due to the main goal for the memes containing controversial name-calling insults for Amaury and status in the Bitcoin Cash community. While the competition is in good graces, what we all don't know is that memes will only encourage those of ill intent to continue them, knowing that it will merely rile up those who do not want the struggle and the FUD and they will attack others in a deeper level. It had a side-effect of the Read.Cash developer banning himself from it.
Some people take memes seriously, and they do not care if you say they are satire or not.
This brings us to my point. We need a change of direction, and it starts with the hero who had turned into a villain and the community he has with it.
Amaury Séchet should stop controlling the Bitcoin Cash protocol and allow others to implement their proposals. If you can't do it, get someone else.
Shammah Chancellor should stop being a hypocrite and saying this (and this!) while going out to proclaim that Read.Cash is censored. Go do your own thing if you don't want it.
C. Edward Kelso should stop making anyone who is against Shammah nor Amaury or any of the Bitcoin ABC members look bad. Write the truth if needed. Heavily imply it, if you can't stop doing it your badly-described articles.
Bitcoin Cash should not be led by these people if all they do not bend down and take the community at their backs. We already have great progress and these setbacks will cost us the whole Bitcoin promise. We are already under attack. Do not let them destroy it.
submitted by steve_m0 to btc [link] [comments]

How EpiK Protocol “Saved the Miners” from Filecoin with the E2P Storage Model?

How EpiK Protocol “Saved the Miners” from Filecoin with the E2P Storage Model?

https://preview.redd.it/n5jzxozn27v51.png?width=2222&format=png&auto=webp&s=6cd6bd726582bbe2c595e1e467aeb3fc8aabe36f
On October 20, Eric Yao, Head of EpiK China, and Leo, Co-Founder & CTO of EpiK, visited Deep Chain Online Salon, and discussed “How EpiK saved the miners eliminated by Filecoin by launching E2P storage model”. ‘?” The following is a transcript of the sharing.
Sharing Session
Eric: Hello, everyone, I’m Eric, graduated from School of Information Science, Tsinghua University. My Master’s research was on data storage and big data computing, and I published a number of industry top conference papers.
Since 2013, I have invested in Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Dogcoin, EOS and other well-known blockchain projects, and have been settling in the chain circle as an early technology-based investor and industry observer with 2 years of blockchain experience. I am also a blockchain community initiator and technology evangelist
Leo: Hi, I’m Leo, I’m the CTO of EpiK. Before I got involved in founding EpiK, I spent 3 to 4 years working on blockchain, public chain, wallets, browsers, decentralized exchanges, task distribution platforms, smart contracts, etc., and I’ve made some great products. EpiK is an answer to the question we’ve been asking for years about how blockchain should be landed, and we hope that EpiK is fortunate enough to be an answer for you as well.
Q & A
Deep Chain Finance:
First of all, let me ask Eric, on October 15, Filecoin’s main website launched, which aroused everyone’s attention, but at the same time, the calls for fork within Filecoin never stopped. The EpiK protocol is one of them. What I want to know is, what kind of project is EpiK Protocol? For what reason did you choose to fork in the first place? What are the differences between the forked project and Filecoin itself?
Eric:
First of all, let me answer the first question, what kind of project is EpiK Protocol.
With the Fourth Industrial Revolution already upon us, comprehensive intelligence is one of the core goals of this stage, and the key to comprehensive intelligence is how to make machines understand what humans know and learn new knowledge based on what they already know. And the knowledge graph scale is a key step towards full intelligence.
In order to solve the many challenges of building large-scale knowledge graphs, the EpiK Protocol was born. EpiK Protocol is a decentralized, hyper-scale knowledge graph that organizes and incentivizes knowledge through decentralized storage technology, decentralized autonomous organizations, and generalized economic models. Members of the global community will expand the horizons of artificial intelligence into a smarter future by organizing all areas of human knowledge into a knowledge map that will be shared and continuously updated for the eternal knowledge vault of humanity
And then, for what reason was the fork chosen in the first place?
EpiK’s project founders are all senior blockchain industry practitioners and have been closely following the industry development and application scenarios, among which decentralized storage is a very fresh application scenario.
However, in the development process of Filecoin, the team found that due to some design mechanisms and historical reasons, the team found that Filecoin had some deviations from the original intention of the project at that time, such as the overly harsh penalty mechanism triggered by the threat to weaken security, and the emergence of the computing power competition leading to the emergence of computing power monopoly by large miners, thus monopolizing the packaging rights, which can be brushed with computing power by uploading useless data themselves.
The emergence of these problems will cause the data environment on Filecoin to get worse and worse, which will lead to the lack of real value of the data in the chain, high data redundancy, and the difficulty of commercializing the project to land.
After paying attention to the above problems, the project owner proposes to introduce multi-party roles and a decentralized collaboration platform DAO to ensure the high value of the data on the chain through a reasonable economic model and incentive mechanism, and store the high-value data: knowledge graph on the blockchain through decentralized storage, so that the lack of value of the data on the chain and the monopoly of large miners’ computing power can be solved to a large extent.
Finally, what differences exist between the forked project and Filecoin itself?
On the basis of the above-mentioned issues, EpiK’s design is very different from Filecoin, first of all, EpiK is more focused in terms of business model, and it faces a different market and track from the cloud storage market where Filecoin is located because decentralized storage has no advantage over professional centralized cloud storage in terms of storage cost and user experience.
EpiK focuses on building a decentralized knowledge graph, which reduces data redundancy and safeguards the value of data in the distributed storage chain while preventing the knowledge graph from being tampered with by a few people, thus making the commercialization of the entire project reasonable and feasible.
From the perspective of ecological construction, EpiK treats miners more friendly and solves the pain point of Filecoin to a large extent, firstly, it changes the storage collateral and commitment collateral of Filecoin to one-time collateral.
Miners participating in EpiK Protocol are only required to pledge 1000 EPK per miner, and only once before mining, not in each sector.
What is the concept of 1000 EPKs, you only need to participate in pre-mining for about 50 days to get this portion of the tokens used for pledging. The EPK pre-mining campaign is currently underway, and it runs from early September to December, with a daily release of 50,000 ERC-20 standard EPKs, and the pre-mining nodes whose applications are approved will divide these tokens according to the mining ratio of the day, and these tokens can be exchanged 1:1 directly after they are launched on the main network. This move will continue to expand the number of miners eligible to participate in EPK mining.
Secondly, EpiK has a more lenient penalty mechanism, which is different from Filecoin’s official consensus, storage and contract penalties, because the protocol can only be uploaded by field experts, which is the “Expert to Person” mode. Every miner needs to be backed up, which means that if one or more miners are offline in the network, it will not have much impact on the network, and the miner who fails to upload the proof of time and space in time due to being offline will only be forfeited by the authorities for the effective computing power of this sector, not forfeiting the pledged coins.
If the miner can re-submit the proof of time and space within 28 days, he will regain the power.
Unlike Filecoin’s 32GB sectors, EpiK’s encapsulated sectors are smaller, only 8M each, which will solve Filecoin’s sector space wastage problem to a great extent, and all miners have the opportunity to complete the fast encapsulation, which is very friendly to miners with small computing power.
The data and quality constraints will also ensure that the effective computing power gap between large and small miners will not be closed.
Finally, unlike Filecoin’s P2P data uploading model, EpiK changes the data uploading and maintenance to E2P uploading, that is, field experts upload and ensure the quality and value of the data on the chain, and at the same time introduce the game relationship between data storage roles and data generation roles through a rational economic model to ensure the stability of the whole system and the continuous high-quality output of the data on the chain.
Deep Chain Finance:
Eric, on the eve of Filecoin’s mainline launch, issues such as Filecoin’s pre-collateral have aroused a lot of controversy among the miners. In your opinion, what kind of impact will Filecoin bring to itself and the whole distributed storage ecosystem after it launches? Do you think that the current confusing FIL prices are reasonable and what should be the normal price of FIL?
Eric:
Filecoin mainnet has launched and many potential problems have been exposed, such as the aforementioned high pre-security problem, the storage resource waste and computing power monopoly caused by unreasonable sector encapsulation, and the harsh penalty mechanism, etc. These problems are quite serious, and will greatly affect the development of Filecoin ecology.
These problems are relatively serious, and will greatly affect the development of Filecoin ecology, here are two examples to illustrate. For example, the problem of big miners computing power monopoly, now after the big miners have monopolized computing power, there will be a very delicate state — — the miners save a file data with ordinary users. There is no way to verify this matter in the chain, whether what he saved is uploaded by himself or someone else. And after the big miners have monopolized computing power, there will be a very delicate state — — the miners will save a file data with ordinary users, there is no way to verify this matter in the chain, whether what he saved is uploaded by himself or someone else. Because I can fake another identity to upload data for myself, but that leads to the fact that for any miner I go to choose which data to save. I have only one goal, and that is to brush my computing power and how fast I can brush my computing power.
There is no difference between saving other people’s data and saving my own data in the matter of computing power. When I save someone else’s data, I don’t know that data. Somewhere in the world, the bandwidth quality between me and him may not be good enough.
The best option is to store my own local data, which makes sense, and that results in no one being able to store data on the chain at all. They only store their own data, because it’s the most economical for them, and the network has essentially no storage utility, no one is providing storage for the masses of retail users.
The harsh penalty mechanism will also severely deplete the miner’s profits, because DDOS attacks are actually a very common attack technique for the attacker, and for a big miner, he can get a very high profit in a short period of time if he attacks other customers, and this thing is a profitable thing for all big miners.
Now as far as the status quo is concerned, the vast majority of miners are actually not very well maintained, so they are not very well protected against these low-DDOS attacks. So the penalty regime is grim for them.
The contradiction between the unreasonable system and the demand will inevitably lead to the evolution of the system in a more reasonable direction, so there will be many forked projects that are more reasonable in terms of mechanism, thus attracting Filecoin miners and a diversion of storage power.
Since each project is in the field of decentralized storage track, the demand for miners is similar or even compatible with each other, so miners will tend to fork the projects with better economic benefits and business scenarios, so as to filter out the projects with real value on the ground.
For the chaotic FIL price, because FIL is also a project that has gone through several years, carrying too many expectations, so it can only be said that the current situation has its own reasons for existence. As for the reasonable price of FIL there is no way to make a prediction because in the long run, it is necessary to consider the commercialization of the project to land and the value of the actual chain of data. In other words, we need to keep observing whether Filecoin will become a game of computing power or a real value carrier.
Deep Chain Finance:
Leo, we just mentioned that the pre-collateral issue of Filecoin caused the dissatisfaction of miners, and after Filecoin launches on the main website, the second round of space race test coins were directly turned into real coins, and the official selling of FIL hit the market phenomenon, so many miners said they were betrayed. What I want to know is, EpiK’s main motto is “save the miners eliminated by Filecoin”, how to deal with the various problems of Filecoin, and how will EpiK achieve “save”?
Leo:
Originally Filecoin’s tacit approval of the computing power makeup behavior was to declare that the official directly chose to abandon the small miners. And this test coin turned real coin also hurt the interests of the loyal big miners in one cut, we do not know why these low-level problems, we can only regret.
EpiK didn’t do it to fork Filecoin, but because EpiK to build a shared knowledge graph ecology, had to integrate decentralized storage in, so the most hardcore Filecoin’s PoRep and PoSt decentralized verification technology was chosen. In order to ensure the quality of knowledge graph data, EpiK only allows community-voted field experts to upload data, so EpiK naturally prevents miners from making up computing power, and there is no reason for the data that has no value to take up such an expensive decentralized storage resource.
With the inability to make up computing power, the difference between big miners and small miners is minimal when the amount of knowledge graph data is small.
We can’t say that we can save the big miners, but we are definitely the optimal choice for the small miners who are currently in the market to be eliminated by Filecoin.
Deep Chain Finance:
Let me ask Eric: According to EpiK protocol, EpiK adopts the E2P model, which allows only experts in the field who are voted to upload their data. This is very different from Filecoin’s P2P model, which allows individuals to upload data as they wish. In your opinion, what are the advantages of the E2P model? If only voted experts can upload data, does that mean that the EpiK protocol is not available to everyone?
Eric:
First, let me explain the advantages of the E2P model over the P2P model.
There are five roles in the DAO ecosystem: miner, coin holder, field expert, bounty hunter and gateway. These five roles allocate the EPKs generated every day when the main network is launched.
The miner owns 75% of the EPKs, the field expert owns 9% of the EPKs, and the voting user shares 1% of the EPKs.
The other 15% of the EPK will fluctuate based on the daily traffic to the network, and the 15% is partly a game between the miner and the field expert.
The first describes the relationship between the two roles.
The first group of field experts are selected by the Foundation, who cover different areas of knowledge (a wide range of knowledge here, including not only serious subjects, but also home, food, travel, etc.) This group of field experts can recommend the next group of field experts, and the recommended experts only need to get 100,000 EPK votes to become field experts.
The field expert’s role is to submit high-quality data to the miner, who is responsible for encapsulating this data into blocks.
Network activity is judged by the amount of EPKs pledged by the entire network for daily traffic (1 EPK = 10 MB/day), with a higher percentage indicating higher data demand, which requires the miner to increase bandwidth quality.
If the data demand decreases, this requires field experts to provide higher quality data. This is similar to a library with more visitors needing more seats, i.e., paying the miner to upgrade the bandwidth.
When there are fewer visitors, more money is needed to buy better quality books to attract visitors, i.e., money for bounty hunters and field experts to generate more quality knowledge graph data. The game between miners and field experts is the most important game in the ecosystem, unlike the game between the authorities and big miners in the Filecoin ecosystem.
The game relationship between data producers and data storers and a more rational economic model will inevitably lead to an E2P model that generates stored on-chain data of much higher quality than the P2P model, and the quality of bandwidth for data access will be better than the P2P model, resulting in greater business value and better landing scenarios.
I will then answer the question of whether this means that the EpiK protocol will not be universally accessible to all.
The E2P model only qualifies the quality of the data generated and stored, not the roles in the ecosystem; on the contrary, with the introduction of the DAO model, the variety of roles introduced in the EpiK ecosystem (which includes the roles of ordinary people) is not limited. (Bounty hunters who can be competent in their tasks) gives roles and possibilities for how everyone can participate in the system in a more logical way.
For example, a miner with computing power can provide storage, a person with a certain domain knowledge can apply to become an expert (this includes history, technology, travel, comics, food, etc.), and a person willing to mark and correct data can become a bounty hunter.
The presence of various efficient support tools from the project owner will lower the barriers to entry for various roles, thus allowing different people to do their part in the system and together contribute to the ongoing generation of a high-quality decentralized knowledge graph.
Deep Chain Finance:
Leo, some time ago, EpiK released a white paper and an economy whitepaper, explaining the EpiK concept from the perspective of technology and economy model respectively. What I would like to ask is, what are the shortcomings of the current distributed storage projects, and how will EpiK protocol be improved?
Leo:
Distributed storage can easily be misunderstood as those of Ali’s OceanDB, but in the field of blockchain, we should focus on decentralized storage first.
There is a big problem with the decentralized storage on the market now, which is “why not eat meat porridge”.
How to understand it? Decentralized storage is cheaper than centralized storage because of its technical principle, and if it is, the centralized storage is too rubbish for comparison.
What incentive does the average user have to spend more money on decentralized storage to store data?
Is it safer?
Existence miners can shut down at any time on decentralized storage by no means save a share of security in Ariadne and Amazon each.
More private?
There’s no difference between encrypted presence on decentralized storage and encrypted presence on Amazon.
Faster?
The 10,000 gigabytes of bandwidth in decentralized storage simply doesn’t compare to the fiber in a centralized server room. This is the root problem of the business model, no one is using it, no one is buying it, so what’s the big vision.
The goal of EpiK is to guide all community participants in the co-construction and sharing of field knowledge graph data, which is the best way for robots to understand human knowledge, and the more knowledge graph data there is, the more knowledge a robot has, the more intelligent it is exponentially, i.e., EpiK uses decentralized storage technology. The value of exponentially growing data is captured with linearly growing hardware costs, and that’s where the buy-in for EPK comes in.
Organized data is worth a lot more than organized hard drives, and there is a demand for EPK when robots have the need for intelligence.
Deep Chain Finance:
Let me ask Leo, how many forked projects does Filecoin have so far, roughly? Do you think there will be more or less waves of fork after the mainnet launches? Have the requirements of the miners at large changed when it comes to participation?
Leo:
We don’t have specific statistics, now that the main network launches, we feel that forking projects will increase, there are so many restricted miners in the market that they need to be organized efficiently.
However, we currently see that most forked projects are simply modifying the parameters of Filecoin’s economy model, which is undesirable, and this level of modification can’t change the status quo of miners making up computing power, and the change to the market is just to make some of the big miners feel more comfortable digging up, which won’t help to promote the decentralized storage ecology to land.
We need more reasonable landing scenarios so that idle mining resources can be turned into effective productivity, pitching a 100x coin instead of committing to one Fomo sentiment after another.
Deep Chain Finance:
How far along is the EpiK Protocol project, Eric? What other big moves are coming in the near future?
Eric:
The development of the EpiK Protocol is divided into 5 major phases.
(a) Phase I testing of the network “Obelisk”.
Phase II Main Network 1.0 “Rosetta”.
Phase III Main Network 2.0 “Hammurabi”.
(a) The Phase IV Enrichment Knowledge Mapping Toolkit.
The fifth stage is to enrich the knowledge graph application ecology.
Currently in the first phase of testing network “Obelisk”, anyone can sign up to participate in the test network pre-mining test to obtain ERC20 EPK tokens, after the mainnet exchange on a one-to-one basis.
We have recently launched ERC20 EPK on Uniswap, you can buy and sell it freely on Uniswap or download our EpiK mobile wallet.
In addition, we will soon launch the EpiK Bounty platform, and welcome all community members to do tasks together to build the EpiK community. At the same time, we are also pushing forward the centralized exchange for token listing.
Users’ Questions
User 1:
Some KOLs said, Filecoin consumed its value in the next few years, so it will plunge, what do you think?
Eric:
First of all, the judgment of the market is to correspond to the cycle, not optimistic about the FIL first judgment to do is not optimistic about the economic model of the project, or not optimistic about the distributed storage track.
First of all, we are very confident in the distributed storage track and will certainly face a process of growth and decline, so as to make a choice for a better project.
Since the existing group of miners and the computing power already produced is fixed, and since EpiK miners and FIL miners are compatible, anytime miners will also make a choice for more promising and economically viable projects.
Filecoin consumes the value of the next few years this time, so it will plunge.
Regarding the market issues, the plunge is not a prediction, in the industry or to keep learning iteration and value judgment. Because up and down market sentiment is one aspect, there will be more very important factors. For example, the big washout in March this year, so it can only be said that it will slow down the development of the FIL community. But prices are indeed unpredictable.
User2:
Actually, in the end, if there are no applications and no one really uploads data, the market value will drop, so what are the landing applications of EpiK?
Leo: The best and most direct application of EpiK’s knowledge graph is the question and answer system, which can be an intelligent legal advisor, an intelligent medical advisor, an intelligent chef, an intelligent tour guide, an intelligent game strategy, and so on.
submitted by EpiK-Protocol to u/EpiK-Protocol [link] [comments]

A criticism of the article "Six monetarist errors: why emission won't feed inflation"

(be gentle, it's my first RI attempt, :P; I hope I can make justice to the subject, this is my layman understanding of many macro subjects which may be flawed...I hope you can illuminate me if I have fallen short of a good RI)
Introduction
So, today a heterodox leaning Argentinian newspaper, Ambito Financiero, published an article criticizing monetarism called "Six monetarist errors: why emission won't feed inflation". I find it doesn't properly address monetarism, confuses it with other "economic schools" for whatever the term is worth today and it may be misleading, so I was inspired to write a refutation and share it with all of you.
In some ways criticizing monetarism is more of a historical discussion given the mainstream has changed since then. Stuff like New Keynesian models are the bleeding edge, not Milton Friedman style monetarism. It's more of a symptom that Argentinian political culture is kind of stuck in the 70s on economics that this things keep being discussed.
Before getting to the meat of the argument, it's good to have in mind some common definitions about money supply measures (specifically, MB, M1 and M2). These definitions apply to US but one can find analogous stuff for other countries.
Argentina, for the lack of access to credit given its economic mismanagement and a government income decrease because of the recession, is monetizing deficits way more than before (like half of the budget, apparently, it's money financed) yet we have seen some disinflation (worth mentioning there are widespread price freezes since a few months ago). The author reasons that monetary phenomena cannot explain inflation properly and that other explanations are needed and condemns monetarism. Here are the six points he makes:
1.Is it a mechanical rule?
This way, we can ask by symmetry: if a certainty exists that when emission increases, inflation increases, the reverse should happen when emission becomes negative, obtaining negative inflation. Nonetheless, we know this happens: prices have an easier time increasing and a lot of rigidity decreasing. So the identity between emission and inflation is not like that, deflation almost never exists and the price movement rhythm cannot be controlled remotely only with money quantity. There is no mechanical relationship between one thing and the other.
First, the low hanging fruit: deflation is not that uncommon, for those of you that live in US and Europe it should be obvious given the difficulties central banks had to achieve their targets, but even Argentina has seen deflation during its depression 20 years ago.
Second, we have to be careful with what we mean by emission. A statement of quantity theory of money (extracted from "Money Growth and Inflation: How Long is the Long-Run?") would say:
Inflation occurs when the average level of prices increases. Individual price increases in and of themselves do not equal inflation, but an overall pattern of price increases does. The price level observed in the economy is that which leads the quantity of money supplied to equal the quantity of money demanded. The quantity of money supplied is largely controlled by the [central bank]. When the supply of money increases or decreases, the price level must adjust to equate the quantity of money demanded throughout the economy with the quantity of money supplied. The quantity of money demanded depends not only on the price level but also on the level of real income, as measured by real gross domestic product (GDP), and a variety of other factors including the level of interest rates and technological advances such as the invention of automated teller machines. Money demand is widely thought to increase roughly proportionally with the price level and with real income. That is, if prices go up by 10 percent, or if real income increases by 10 percent, empirical evidence suggests people want to hold 10 percent more money. When the money supply grows faster than the money demand associated with rising real incomes and other factors, the price level must rise to equate supply and demand. That is, inflation occurs. This situation is often referred to as too many dollars chasing too few goods. Note that this theory does not predict that any money-supply growth will lead to inflation—only that part of money supply growth that exceeds the increase in money demand associated with rising real GDP (holding the other factors constant).
So it's not mere emission, but money supply growing faster than money demand which we should consider. So negative emission is not necessary condition for deflation in this theory.
It's worth mentioning that the relationship with prices is observed for a broad measure of money (M2) and after a lag. From the same source of this excerpt one can observe in Fig. 3a the correlation between inflation and money growth for US becomes stronger the longer data is averaged. Price rigidities don't have to change this long term relationship per se.
But what about causality and Argentina? This neat paper shows regressions in two historical periods: 1976-1989 and 1991-2001. The same relationship between M2 and inflation is observed, stronger in the first, highly inflationary period and weaker in the second, more stable, period. The regressions a 1-1 relationship in the high inflation period but deviates a bit in the low inflation period (yet the relationship is still there). Granger causality, as interpreted in the paper, shows prices caused money growth in the high inflation period (arguably because spending was monetized) while the reverse was true for the more stable period.
So one can argue that there is a mechanical relationship, albeit one that is more complicated than simple QTOM theory. The relationship is complicated too for low inflation economies, it gets more relevant the higher inflation is.
Another point the author makes is that liquidity trap is often ignored. I'll ignore the fact that you need specific conditions for the liquidity trap to be relevant to Argentina and address the point. Worth noting that while market monetarists (not exactly old fashioned monetarists) prefer alternative explanations for monetary policy with very low interest rates, this phenomena has a good monetary basis, as explained by Krugman in his famous japanese liquidity trap paper and his NYT blog (See this and this for some relevant articles). The simplified version is that while inflation may follow M2 growth with all the qualifiers needed, central banks may find difficulties targeting inflation when interest rates are low and agents are used to credible inflation targets. Central banks can change MB, not M2 and in normal times is good enough, but at those times M2 is out of control and "credibly irresponsible" policies are needed to return to normal (a more detailed explanation can be found in that paper I just linked, go for it if you are still curious).
It's not like monetary policy is not good, it's that central banks have to do very unconventional stuff to achieve in a low interest rate environment. It's still an open problem but given symmetric inflation targeting policies are becoming more popular I'm optimistic.
2 - Has inflation one or many causes?
In Argentina we know that the main determinant of inflation is dollar price increases. On that, economic concentration of key markets, utility price adjustments, fuel prices, distributive struggles, external commodity values, expectatives, productive disequilibrium, world interest rates, the economic cycle, stationality and external sector restrictions act on it too.
Let's see a simple example: during Macri's government since mid 2017 to 2019 emission was practically null, but when in 2018 the dollar value doubled, inflation doubled too (it went from 24% to 48% in 2018) and it went up again a year later. We see here that the empirical validity of monetarist theory was absent.
For the first paragraph, one could try to run econometric tests for all those variables, at least from my layman perspective. But given that it doesn't pass the smell test (has any country used that in its favor ignoring monetary policy? Also, I have shown there is at least some evidence for the money-price relationship before), I'll try to address what happened in Macri's government and if monetarism (or at least some reasonable extension of it) cannot account for it.
For a complete description of macroeconomic policy on that period, Sturzenegger account is a good one (even if a bit unreliable given he was the central banker for that government and he is considered to have been a failure). The short version is that central banks uses bonds to manage monetary policy and absorb money; given the history of defaults for the country, the Argentinian Central Bank (BCRA) uses its own peso denominated bonds instead of using treasury bonds. At that time period, the BCRA still financed the treasury but the amount got reduced. Also, it emitted pesos to buy dollar reserves, then sterilized them, maybe risking credibility further.
Near the end of 2017 it was evident the government had limited appetite for budget cuts, it had kind of abandoned its inflation target regime and the classic problem of fiscal dominance emerged, as it's shown in the classic "Unpleasant monetarist arithmetic" paper by Wallace and Sargent. Monetary policy gets less effective when the real value of bonds falls, and raising interest rates may be counterproductive in that environment. Rational expectations are needed to complement QTOM.
So, given that Argentina promised to go nowhere with reform, it was expected that money financing would increase at some point in the future and BCRA bonds were dumped in 2018 and 2019 as their value was perceived to have decreased, and so peso demand decreased. It's not that the dollar value increased and inflation followed, but instead that peso demand fell suddenly!
The IMF deal asked for MB growth to be null or almost null but that doesn't say a lot about M2 (which it's the relevant variable here). Without credible policies, the peso demand keeps falling because bonds are dumped even more (see 2019 for a hilariously brutal example of that).
It's not emission per se, but rather that it doesn't adjust properly to peso demand (which is falling). That doesn't mean increasing interest rates is enough to achieve it, following Wallace and Sargent model.
This is less a strict proof that a monetary phenomenon is involved and more stating that the author hasn't shown any problem with that, there are reasonable models for this situation. It doesn't look like an clear empirical failure to me yet.
3 - Of what we are talking about when we talk about emission?
The author mentions many money measures (M0, M1, M2) but it doesn't address it meaningfully as I tried to do above. It feels more like a rhetorical device because there is no point here except "this stuff exists".
Also, it's worth pointing that there are actual criticisms to make to Friedman on those grounds. He failed to forecast US inflation at some points when he switched to M1 instead of using M2, although he later reverted that. Monetarism kind of "failed" there (it also "failed" in the sense that modern central banks don't use money, but instead interest rates as their main tool; "failed" because despite being outdated, it was influential to modern central banking). This is often brought to this kind of discussions like if economics hasn't moved beyond that. For an account of Friedman thoughts on monetary policies and his failures, see this.
4 - Why do many countries print and inflation doesn't increase there?
There is a mention about the japanese situation in the 90s (the liquidity trap) which I have addressed.
The author mentions that many countries "printed" like crazy during the pandemic, and he says:
Monetarism apologists answer, when confronted with those grave empirical problems that happen in "serious countries", that the population "trusts" their monetary authorities, even increasing the money demand in those place despite the emission. Curious, though, it's an appeal to "trust" implying that the relationship between emission and inflation is not objective, but subjective and cultural: an appreciation that abandons mechanicism and the basic certainty of monetarism, because evaluations and diagnostics, many times ideologic, contextual or historical intervene..
That's just a restatement of applying rational expectations to central bank operations. I don't see a problem with that. Rational expectations is not magic, it's an assessment of future earnings by economic actors. Humans may not 100% rational but central banking somehow works on many countries. You cannot just say that people are ideologues and let it at that. What's your model?
Worth noting the author shills for bitcoin a bit in this section, for more cringe.
5 - Are we talking of a physical science or a social science?
Again, a vague mention of rational expectations ("populists and pro market politicians could do the same policies with different results because of how agents respond ideologically and expectatives") without handling the subject meaningfully. It criticizes universal macroeconomic rules that apply everywhere (this is often used to dismiss evidence from other countries uncritically more than as a meaningful point).
6 - How limits work?
The last question to monetarism allows to recognize it something: effectively we can think on a type of vinculation between emission and inflation in extreme conditions. That means, with no monetary rule, no government has the need of taxes but instead can emit and spend all it needs without consequence. We know it's not like that: no government can print infinitely without undesirable effects.
Ok, good disclaimer, but given what he wrote before, what's the mechanism which causes money printing to be inflationary at some point? It was rejected before but now it seems that it exists. What was even the point of the article?
Now, the problem is thinking monetarism on its extremes: without emission we have inflation sometimes, on others we have no inflation with emission, we know that if we have negative emission that doesn't guarantees us negative inflation, but that if emission is radically uncontrolled there will economic effects.
As I wrote above, that's not what monetarism (even on it's simpler form) says, nor a consequence of it. You can see some deviations in low inflation environment but it's not really Argentina's current situation.
Let's add other problems: the elastic question between money and prices is not evident. Neither is time lags in which can work or be neutral. So the question is the limit cases for monetarism which has some reason but some difficulty in explaining them: by which and it what moments rules work and in which it doesn't.
I find the time lag thing to be a red herring. You can observe empirically and not having a proper short/middle run model doesn't invalidate QTOM in the long run. While it may be that increasing interest rates or freezing MB is not effective, that's less a problem of the theory and more a problem of policy implementation.
Conclusion:
I find that the article doesn't truly get monetarism to begin with (see the points it makes about emission and money demand), neither how it's implemented in practice, nor seems to be aware of more modern theories that, while put money on the background, don't necessarily invalidate it (rational expectation ideas, and eventually New Keynesian stuff which addresses stuff like liquidity traps properly).
There are proper criticisms to be made to Friedman old ideas but he still was a relevant man in his time and the economic community has moved on to new, better theories that have some debt to it. I feel most economic discussion about monetarism in Argentina is a strawman of mainstream economics or an attack on Austrians more than genuine points ("monetarism" is used as a shorthand for those who think inflation is a monetary phenomenon more than referring to Friedman and his disciples per se).
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Crypto Mining Difficulty 101 - Everything You Need to Know Mining Pool Shares, Difficulty and Luck Explained Is Bitcoin breaking out?? Highest mining difficulty + number of bitcoin whales increasing!! Bitcoin Q&A: Why Can't Bitcoin Mining Difficulty Adjust a Little Quicker? What is bitcoin mining difficulty and how it effects our output (HINDI)

Network Difficulty A relative measure of how difficult it is to mine a new block for the blockchain. 30 Days 60 Days 180 Days 1 Year 3 Years All Time. Raw Values 7 Day Average 30 Day Average. Linear Scale Logarithmic Scale. More about this chart. Explanation. The difficulty is a measure of how difficult it is to mine a Bitcoin block, or in more technical terms, to find a hash below a given ... Live updating Bitcoin difficulty estimator and visualization of the current mining epoch. Toggle Dark/Light Mode. Bitcoin Difficulty Estimator (by /u/archaeal) Come chat with us in our new Telegram group! (page refreshes automatically) (all times local) copy stats to clipboard. FUN FACT: Due to a longstanding bug in the Bitcoin source code, the time spent mining the first block in each ... Bitcoin (BTC) Stats. Transactions count, value, Bitcoins sent, difficulty, blocks count, network hashrate, market capitalization... The Bitcoin difficulty chart provides the current Bitcoin difficulty (BTC diff) target as well as a historical data graph visualizing Bitcoin mining difficulty chart values with BTC difficulty adjustments (both increases and decreases) defaulted to today with timeline options of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, and all time Before we even begin to understand what bitcoin mining difficulty means, we need to know how mining works. We have covered this topic in detail before, so we will just give you a little overview before getting into the different nuances of difficulty. Following that, we will look at how mining difficulty is calculated and how it changes to suit the network’s needs.

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This is a variable that the Bitcoin system is using to keep the growth of new Bitcoins on a controllable rate. It started as 1 and changes once in every 2016 calculated blocks. Finding the current ... A chart showing bitcoin mining difficulty changes over time Bitcoin is the currency of the future & Genesis Mining is the largest cloud mining company on the market How to buy a pack in onecoin ... The Bitcoin mining difficulty currently adjusts roughly every 2 weeks, while on other chains mining difficulty adjusts much more often. Why? Why does Bitcoin... Jaisa mere viewers ne pucha tha ki bitcoin ki mining, blocks aur difficulty kya hoti hai aur iska hamare mining output pe kya assar padta hai, iss video mein maine ye bataya hai. Bitcoin ki mining ... Hey everyone In this video we have discussed about Bitcoin price movement that how bitcoin is currently moving sideways and we have also compared it with NASDAQ chart. We have also discussed about ...

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